Medscape Psychiatry > Brain Food
Prescribing a Diet to Treat Depression
Drew Ramsey, MD | February 03, 2017 Medscape
The first-ever randomised controlled clinical trial to test a dietary intervention as a treatment for clinical depression has just been published. I am Dr Drew Ramsey. I am assistant clinical professor of psychiatry at Columbia University in New York City. I am excited to share the results of this very interesting study with you.
Two researchers, Felice Jacka and Michael Berk, led a consortium of Australian Institutions based at the Food & Mood Centre at Deakin University in Victoria, Australia. Over 3 years, they recruited several hundred patients with moderate to severe depression and entered 67 into a 12-week parallel group trial. The treatment group received seven 60-minute sessions of dietary counselling. The parallel control group received a matching social support protocol. All but nine of the 67 participants were receiving another active treatment—either psychotherapy, medications, or both.
In the dietary counselling sessions, participants were implored to increase consumption of foods in 12 food categories. The food categories, as you may guess, included whole grains, fruits, vegetables, nuts and legumes, and lean meats, chicken, and seafood, and to decrease consumption of foods that are correlated with a higher risk for depression: empty carbohydrates, refined starches, and highly processed foods. During the past decade, a mountain of evidence has been building that dietary patterns are strongly correlated with risk for depression. We have not had a randomized controlled trial like this to direct our clinical care, however.
The outcome was quite robust. They developed that pattern, which they called the Modified Mediterranean Diet, or the Modi-Medi Diet, by combining recommendations from the Australian government and the Greek government, and data from an earlier analysis by Felice Jacka and her colleagues that determined which dietary factors played the largest role in fighting depression with diet.
As we know from our experience in our nutritional psychiatry clinic here in New York, discussing food is a great way to get a conversation going about aspects of a patient's life that we traditionally do not discuss. When you think about all of the information one can get about food and how people care for themselves, it becomes an intervention that not only helps build a very strong alliance but also is just a lot of fun—talking about lentil soup and where people get their seafood, and focusing overall on the food categories that individuals need to improve. Overall, these good foods tend to be leafy greens, rainbow vegetables, a variety of seafood, and improving the quality and amount of meat they consume, and, as the researchers note, reducing the consumption of foods that increase the risk for depression and other disorders.
One issue about eating for brain health is the cost, as often the recommended seafood and organic food can cost more. But the Australian researchers found that eating for brain health costs less. The average Australian spends $138 a week on food. Those who were taking part in the study spent just $112.
The study is called the SMILES Study. SMILES stands for Supporting Modification of Lifestyle in Lower Emotional States.
I should note that the people who entered the trial had a poor dietary quality. Overall, that is what we also see in our clinic: Individuals who have the best response to a brain-food intervention are those who are eating a nutrient-depleted diet, often called the "beige diet" or the "12-year-old boy diet," consisting of empty carbohydrates, pizza, pasta, baked goods, and few of the brain nutrients that we hope patients will seek out based on the mountain of data we have.
Certain nutrients, such as the omega-3 fats, zinc, magnesium, iron, and vitamin B12, are very effective in terms of preventing depression and are readily found if you choose the right core set of foods. These are the foods that make up traditional diets, the foods that are highly correlated with a lower risk for depression and dementia. With this new randomized controlled clinical trial, this set of foods looks as though it can play a role as an adjunctive treatment for clinical depression and help your patients achieve full remission.
Probiotics NZ Ltd : Home of Natren Probiotics : Nicola Johns
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Timing of Your Meals Might Reduce Heart Risks
American Heart Association report suggests eating more earlier in the day may be healthier
TUESDAY, Jan. 31, 2017 (Medscape News) -- People who want a healthy heart should be mindful of not only what they eat, but when they eat, according to a new scientific statement from the American Heart Association (AHA).
The report is a response to the growing evidence that timing matters when it comes to heart disease risk, said Marie-Pierre St-Onge, the lead author of the statement. The various organs of the body have their own "clocks," St-Onge explained, and that may affect how we handle food at different times of the day and night. "For example, later in the evening, it's harder for the body to process glucose [sugar], compared with earlier in the day," said St-Onge, an associate professor of nutritional medicine at Columbia University in New York City.
The new statement highlights what's known -- and what's not -- about meal timing and heart health. It suggests that people spread out their calories over a "defined" period of the day -- as opposed to either eating a lot over a short period, or grazing from morning until night. Based on the evidence, the AHA says, it's probably a good idea to get a large share of your calories earlier in the day.
"A long fasting duration at night is better than a long fast during the day," St-Onge said. But there's no declaration that breakfast is the most important meal of the day. The evidence, St-Onge said, is just not clear enough to make specific recommendations on breakfast. Based on what studies have been done, adding breakfast doesn't seem to aid weight loss, the report said. Of course, if breakfast skippers simply add an extra meal to their day, they'll gain weight, St-Onge pointed out.
It is important, she said, to hydrate after a long liquid-free night. Coffee does "count," she noted, but a glass of water is better.
That raises another question: Should people eat "three square meals," or is it better to stick with small, but more-frequent meals? That's not clear, according to the AHA. Studies that track people in the real world have found that those who eat more often during the day have a lower risk of obesity and better cholesterol levels.
On the other hand, the AHA says, small trials that have tested the effects of altering meal frequency have mostly come up empty. When daily calories are kept constant, meal frequency may not affect people's weight, levels of "good" HDL cholesterol or other factors that affect heart health.
Of course, there is no one-size-fits-all approach to eating, St-Onge said. Some people, she noted, do well with "grazing" throughout the day -- as long as the food choices are healthy, and they do not keep grazing until midnight. "If you're someone with good control over your diet, maybe grazing is a good idea," St-Onge said. "But if it's difficult for you to stop eating once you start, it's probably not a good idea." According to Angelone, frequent eating may not be wise for people with resistance to insulin -- the hormone that regulates blood sugar. Insulin resistance is seen in people with type 2 diabetes or "pre-diabetes." If those people eat often, Angelone explained, their insulin levels may never have a chance to drop.
In general, St-Onge said, "mindfulness" is critical. Often, people eat not because they're hungry, but to deal with emotions, she said.
"Ask yourself why you're eating," St-Onge said. "Is it because you're stressed or sad or bored? Ask yourself whether you're really hungry right now."
The statement was published online Jan. 30 in the AHA journal Circulation.
SOURCES: Marie-Pierre St-Onge, Ph.D., associate professor, nutritional medicine, Columbia University, New York City; Sonya Angelone, M.S., R.D.N., spokesperson, Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, Chicago;
Probiotics NZ Ltd: Home of Natren : Nicola Johns
P 09 5283391 37Mayfair Place, Glen Innes, Auckland.
Using your Smartphone in Bed Causes Temporary Blindness
Two patients attended Moorfields Eye Hospital Clinic in London after experiencing recurring episodes of temporary blindness as reported in The New England Journal of Medicine. Using your smartphone in the dark in bed can cause a temporary loss of vision, eye specialists are warning.
A 22-year-old woman had experienced impaired vision in her right eye at night for several months and a 40-year-old woman experienced 6 months of visual impairment in one eye for up to 15 minutes when she woke. They looked at their phones with only one eye as their other eye was covered by a pillow (they were lying on their side). Their symptoms developed minutes after they had used their smartphone while lying in bed in darkness.
It was explained that while one eye got adapted to the dark, the other became used to the bright light from the phone's screen. Smartphones are increasingly being manufactured with brighter screens and are used day and night, so this is likely to become more common.
Sources: Medscape June 27, 2016, Moorfields Eye Hospital, UK, Transient Smartphone ‘blindness” Dr G Plant et al. The New England Journal of Medicine.
Is Your Gut Ruling Your Brain on Food Choices?
People , may no longer have to blame their food cravings — and giving in to them — on poor self-control.
Now scientists are arguing that microbes living in the gut are responsible for manipulating eating behaviour by causing cravings for food they favour for fitness or that suppress their competition. Alternatively, microbiota in the gut may send out signals via the vagus nerve to the brain to induce dysphasia and goad people into eating what the microbe needs whether it's good for the host or not, a diverse group of researchers are suggesting.
"Bacteria within the gut are manipulative," Carlo Maley, PhD, director, Centre for Evolution and Cancer, University of California at San Francisco, states. "There is a diversity of interests represented in the microbiome, some aligned with our own dietary goals and others not." In their overview of eating behaviour and the microbiome Joe Alcock, MD, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, and colleagues argue that certain microbes are highly dependent on the nutrient composition of the diet.
Microbes can manipulate host behavior in a variety of ways, but one way may be by "hijacking" the host's nervous system. As the authors point out, evidence shows that microbes can have dramatic effects on behaviour through the microbiome-gut-brain axis. "The vagus nerve is a central actor in this communication axis, connecting the 100 million neurons in the enteric nervous system in the gut to the base of the brain at the medulla," they explain. And, they add, enteric nerves have receptors that react to the presence of particular bacteria as well as to bacterial metabolites. Other pathways through which microbes may influence host eating behaviour is through secretion of hormones involved in mood and behaviour, including dopamine and serotonin. Microbes may also manipulate eating behaviour by altering receptor expression. "Microbes have the capacity to manipulate behaviour and mood through altering the neural signals in the vagus nerve, changing taste receptors, producing toxins to make us feel bad and releasing chemical rewards to make us feel good," "Together, these results suggest that microbes have opportunities to manipulate vagus nerve traffic in order to control host eating. Happily, researcher add, the use of probiotics, antibiotics, and dietary changes can rapidly alter the microbiome within 24 hours of administration.
The study was funded by the National Institutes of Health, the American Cancer Society, the Bonnie D. Addario Lung Cancer Foundation, and the Institute for Advanced study in Berlin, Germany. The authors have disclosed no relevant financial relationships.
Lets talk about it: it says when we eat the food the bad bacteria and candida need to grow and breed (starches and sugar) we will be rewarded with the release of neurotransmitters that make us "happy" eg serotonin and dopamine. As we like feeling like this (happy and clam) we eventually eat these again. The bad bacteria's and candida grow on this and breed/multiply producing more of themselves. If we don't eat those foods( starch and sugar) the bad bacteria and candida are unhappy, cannot be fed, starve and die. Their population reduces and we get more healthy. However the bad bacteria and candida are aggressive and competitive- they want to stay in our intestines- and don't want to die so they go ahead and release toxins in us which makes us not feel good or in some people depressed or just unwell. They know this effect will makes up go back to eat some of the food they want and then they can survive. A cycle. Of course to get rid of these unwelcome feelings we go ahead and eat some starch or sugar again, and we feel uplifted and settled and happier and a temporary "more well" feeling. Now the bad bacteria can grow and keep the good bacteria out. See how the cycle continues- we are a host for them and they survive in us with great efficiency. Our pancreas and liver cannot cope with the sugar and starch so we get rebound effects from the production of inflammation. To break this cycle, we can reduce sugar and starch initially, this starves the bad bacteria and candida. We know they will complain and produce toxins in us and we will have to put up with some days of not feeling great but this starving them will cause them to die, thus their population will decrease. There is now room for more good bacteria so you can quicken this by taking a probiotic- Natren's Trenev Trio has high numbers of your intestine's super human strain- not any old probiotic that has been made from soil or animals. The good bacteria take up these spaces in our intestines. While doing this you get a double whammy: when the bad bacteria and candida die they burst with toxins, but then also when we starve them by changing our eating in this way, they get stressed and make lots of toxin to force you back to eating starch and sugar. Two lots of toxins! Be strong for a few days- take Green Magma which helps the liver and pancreas - and the chlorophyll in Green Magma helps get rid of the toxins produced. Natren probiotics helps with the toxins too. Over time you can eat more starch and some sugar because you have got your bad bacteria and candida population to a low level- not so many mouths to feed.
How to teach yourself more about probiotics:
Click on the "you tube" links below.
Episode 1: Who is Natasha Trenev? https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vSaEk_HGLDA
Episode 2: What are probiotics? https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hWe3Ok3lwJg
Episode 3: Why should you care about your Internal Ecosystem? https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3ET_VKi2n5Y
Episode 4: Do functional foods really help us? https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DHeHgCZMHzo
Episode 5: What do you want vs what do you need? https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QGDG3KfttSA
Episode 6: How do you choose the best probiotic, Step One https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4lfSqwyg1uI
Episode 6: How to choose the best probiotic, Step Two
Episode 6: How to choose the best probiotic, Step Three https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BU8PJwpwwCs
Episode 7:How do you choose the right strain of probiotic? https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=f1bL4e-JMbs
Episode 8: Truth about Multiple Strain Probiotics. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-u1OdQtO-L0
Episode 9: What's in a Probiotic Delivery System? https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rD5VV5v4fiw
Newspaper article from UK
Probiotic drinks 'don't do any good': Study finds 'good' bacteria in many products does not even reach the small intestine
· Scientists put eight probiotic drinks through three tests to asses health benefits
· Found that only one of them passed all three tests showing they aid digestion
· Study carried out by University College London
· The probiotic drinks market is said to be worth £19.7billion worldwide.+2A new survey has revealed that many probiotic drinks and supplements are likely to have no health benefits
Many probiotic drinks and supplements are likely to have no health benefits, according to a survey.
In a number of them, the ‘good’ bacteria said to aid digestion barely even made it to the ‘target’ area, the small intestine.
Scientists at University College London put eight probiotic products through three tests and found only one passed them all. Study author Dr Simon Gaisford, of UCL’s School of Pharmacy, said: ‘Just swallowing them is no good if the stomach then kills everything.’
Researchers investigated whether products contained as many live bacteria as claimed, whether the bacteria survived passing through the acidic stomach environment and whether they then flourished in the small intestine.
Four – Align, Biobalance, Bio-Kult and Probio 7 – did not pass a single test. Yogurt drink Yakult contained enough bacteria but failed on the next two stages, while rival Actimel fell short on the number of bacteria surviving the stomach.
Only water-based barley drink Symprove passed all three challenges. Bacteria in the product VSL#3 survived the stomach and flourished in the small intestine. However, it contained fewer live bacteria than stated.
The study, using pig stomach fluids, will be published in the journal Beneficial Microbes. It adds to the debate about the benefits of probiotics. Research earlier this week suggested a daily dose of friendly bacteria could stave off colds.
Bio-Kult said its capsules have been comprehensively researched. Yakult said independent studies showed its bacteria survived through the human gut at a high level.
Six in ten UK households regularly buy probiotic drinks and supplements, which claim to be bursting with health-boosting ‘friendly bacteria’.
The probiotic market is estimated to be worth £19.7 billion globally.
Dr Gaisford, said probiotics in liquid form performed better than capsules and recommended anyone using a probiotic should take it on an empty stomach after waking.
+2Dr Rob Hicks, a GP and media doctor, said probiotics were a ‘phenomenon’ and the ‘astonishing’ results should help shoppers make better decisions
Waiting at least 10 minutes afterwards before eating will help reduce the chance of the beneficial bacteria being killed by stomach fluids, he said.
Dr Rob Hicks, a GP and media doctor, said probiotics were a ‘phenomenon’ and the ‘astonishing’ results should help shoppers make better decisions.
‘Some people take them as a form of health insurance and some take them for chronic disorders such as IBS and are often not particularly satisfied with conventional medicine,’ he said
‘Lots of products claim to work but the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) have basically said there’s not enough scientific evidence for probiotics to make health claims.’
Symprove weren’t involved in the research but did provide funding to write up the results.
This is the scientific article link that the newspaper article took the information from.
Scientific Article Available here: http://wageningenacademic.metapress.com/content/b6t42045019lh212/fulltext.pdf
Published: Beneficial Microbes, 2015
Do Antibiotics Raise Diabetes Risk via Gut Microbiota?
Liam Davenport April 01, 2015
People who take multiple courses of antibiotics may face an increased risk of developing
both type 1 and type 2 diabetes, potentially through alterations in gut microbiota, conclude
The team, led by Ben Boursi, MD, a postdoctoral researcher in the department of
gastroenterology at the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, found that the risk of
diabetes was increased by up to 37%, depending on the type of antibiotic and the number of courses prescribed.
"Over prescription of antibiotics is already a problem around the world as bacteria become
increasingly resistant to their effects," commented Dr Boursi in a statement."Our findings are
important, not only for understanding how diabetes may develop, but as a warning to reduce
unnecessary antibiotic treatments that might do more harm than good."
The study was published March 24 in the European Journal of Endocrinology.
The More Courses of Antibiotics, the Greater the Risk
Dr Boursi explained that studies both in animal models and humans have shown an association between changes in gut microbiota in response to antibiotic exposure and obesity, insulin resistance, and diabetes.
Speaking to Medscape Medical News, he noted: "In mice, we know that germ-free mice are lean and, by faecal transplantation, we can transmit obesity to them. He added that there have been several studies in humans indicating that exposure to antibiotics in early childhood is associated with an increased risk of obesity in later life, while other investigations have reported differences in gut microbiota between people with and without diabetes, Treatment with two to five courses of antibiotics was linked to an increased risk of diabetes The highest risk for diabetes was seen among people who received more than five courses.
Forget Cholesterol, but Cut Sugar: New Dietary Recommendations Make Some Changes Michael O'Riordan February 24, 2015 Medscape
WASHINGTON, DC — An expert panel has released its new recommendations to the US government for healthy eating in a 570-page report that provides some new advice and supports a pattern that promotes health and prevents disease.
Published this week, the recommendations include advice staples such as focusing on the consumption of fruit, vegetables, whole grains, low- or nonfat dairy, seafood, legumes, and nuts and limiting the consumption of red and processed meat, added sugars, and refined grains. But the recommendations also include some twists, such as giving a green light to a moderate amount of caffeine consumption and no longer trying to control the amount of dietary cholesterol Americans eat.
The recommendations from the committee, 18 months in the making, cite "new scientific evidence" to inform the revisions to the 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans. The review of the evidence and their recommendations were presented to the US Departments of Health and Human Services and Agriculture.
In the US, approximately 155 million individuals are overweight or obese and 117 million individuals have chronic, preventable diseases.
Some Surprises in the Report
The recommendations diverge slightly from past guidelines in that they no longer put a limit on the amount of dietary cholesterol individuals should eat.
In the 2010 dietary guidelines, the daily cholesterol target was set at less than 300 mg. Now, says the committee, dietary cholesterol is "not considered a nutrient of concern for overconsumption" and current evidence suggests there is "no appreciable relationship" between heart disease and dietary cholesterol.
The recommendations also provide good news for coffee lovers in that caffeine is no longer considered an enemy of the people. In fact, the advisory committee says consuming three to five cups of coffee per day can be part of a healthy diet and that data to date suggest that coffee reduces the risk of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. This amounts to approximately 400 mg of caffeine per day. The consumption of added sugar, fatty milk, or rich creams with the coffee, though, is not advised.
Regarding sodium, the DGAC points out that people still consume way too much, with the average individual consuming nearly 3500 mg per day. As part of the dietary recommendations, the goal is for individuals to cut at least 1000 mg of sodium from their daily diet to get daily intake down to 2300 mg per day. The advisory committee no longer recommends a daily target of 1500 mg for any individuals, even those with hypertension, diabetes, or chronic kidney disease.
The committee also recommends consuming no more than 10% of daily calories from saturated fat. Regarding added sugars, the same rule applies, with the recommendation that no more than 10% of calories come from added sugar. This amounts to just 12 teaspoons of sugar per day. Currently, the average American takes in anywhere from 22 to 30 teaspoons daily, often in the form of juices and sugar-laden drinks.
To combat how much sugar is consumed, especially by kids in the form of fizzy and energy drinks, the guideline authors say that water is the preferred beverage choice. "Strategies are needed to encourage the population, especially children and adolescents, to drink water when they are thirsty," they write.
Green Tea Linked to Lower Risk for Cognitive Decline
Daniel M. Keller, PhD
March 25, 2015
NICE, France — Higher consumption of green tea was associated with a lower risk for dementia or mild cognitive impairment (MCI), even after possible confounding factors were considered, a Japanese study shows. Black tea or coffee did not show the same effect.
Researchers led by Moeko Noguchi-Shinohara, MD, from Kanazawa University Graduate School of Medical Science in Japan, conducted a population-based, prospective study of residents of Nakajima older than age 60 years, starting with participants with normal cognitive function in 2007-2008 as evaluated by using the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and the Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR) scale.
The investigators reported these results here at 2015: International Conference on Alzheimer's and Parkinson's Diseases.
Participants' consumption of green tea, black tea, and coffee was assessed at baseline, at which point various blood tests were also performed, including determination of ApoEgenotype.
Of the 723 starting participants, 490 completed a follow-up survey in 2011–2013. Participants were stratified according to how often they drank green tea: not at all, 1 to 6 days/week, or every day. Dr Noguchi-Shinohara reported that at follow-up between 2011 and 2013, green tea consumption 1 to 6 days/wk or every day was associated with a lower risk for MCI or dementia. There was no effect of coffee consumed daily or 1 to 6 days/wk or of black tea consumption. She calculated that the odds ratio of developing dementia or cognitive decline was 0.47 (P < .05) for elderly Japanese participants who drank green tea 1 to 6 days/ wk and 0.32 (P < .01) for those who drank it every day.
The authors concluded that drinking green tea could be beneficial for reducing the risk for cognitive decline. However, they did not provide any data about how long participants had been consuming the green or black tea or coffee in their lives. They said that many studies have focused on the possible protective effects of polyphenols contained in such beverages.
Major constituents in green tea are epigallo catechin 3-gallate, myricetin, and ascorbic acid, and the authors noted that their findings support previously reported data on the neuroprotective properties of these compounds. Green tea, black tea, and coffee also contain caffeine.
Green tea and black tea come from the same plant. The difference is in the preparation. Green tea leaves are withered and steamed, halting oxidation. Black tea is crushed and fermented, allowing oxidation and darkening of the leaves.
"I'm sure that someday you'll find they're very useful compounds," he commented to Medscape Medical News. "They've been used for many years without knowing the exact structure, just knowing the plant's species [people] knew what it's good for."
Although this investigation showed that only green tea affected cognitive decline, Dr Larsen said he would not dismiss black tea or coffee completely. On the basis of papers he has read, he said coffee may have some protective effects on Parkinson's disease and dementia through epigenetic mechanisms.
If you did not get a copy of April issue of NEXT magazine (now not on sale) which has an interview with us about what makes an excellent probiotic supplement and about helping depression and anxiety with probiotics then please email email@example.com and we will send it to you. The article discusses reasons why it is helpful to take a probiotic daily for better intestinal health and includes the research from Ireland that shows how taking a good probiotic helps symptoms of anxiety and depression.
Good science once again proves supernatant claims!
ü Natren’s L. acidophilus NAS super strain produces anti-bacterial components to inhibit undesirable bacteria which is a health benefit to individuals using Natren probiotic products which contain the supernatant
ü Natren’s probiotic bacteria are grown in a nutritionally balanced food base we call the supernatant
ü A special process known as mass spectrometry was used to identify special health promoting compounds found in the supernatant of Natren’s L. acidophilus NAS super strain.
Published in the Journal of Dairy Science in April 2014
World Renowned Probiotic Expert, Professor Gregor Reid agrees with Natasha’s (CEO of Natren) long standing premise that multi-strain probiotics aren’t better than one, two or three strains.
• Probiota February 2014, Amsterdam - Professor Reid commented that little is known about the way different species of bacteria interact because some strains inhibit the activity of others when placed together.
• He stated that “The tendency is ‘let’s have 15 strains...let’s have 28 billion’, “you’ve got to know what they’re doing. Are they really having an impact”.
He questions what is the point of putting them in the same container if the strains inhibit one another. • Professor Reid is one of the leading experts in the field of probiotics. He is a Professor at the University of Western Ontario, but more impressively he has been the chairperson of the United Nations World Health Organization Expert Panel and Working Group on Probiotics. Natren's Trenev Trio capsule is a matrix where the three types of bacteria are each separate so cannot compete with each other.
“Influenza Worries Include MRSA, Bird Flu”
The Los Angeles Times, 7/2/09
- The nation’s top health officials are concerned that the dominant strain of influenza circulating in much of the country is resistant to Tamiflu, the most commonly used influenza antiviral.
- The threat of a deadly pneumonia that can develop when someone is infected with both the flu virus and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, or MRSA.
- Dr. Andrew Pavia, chief of pediatric infectious diseases at the University of Utah Health Sciences Center said, “The bacteria we’re dealing with are changing, becoming more drug-resistant…MRSA is causing a significant number of severe illnesses and occasionally death in healthy people after influenza.”
Be sure to take Natren® Trenev Trio® during flu season to build up immunity against bad bacteria.
“Food Poisoning Strikes 1 in 4 Americans Each Year”
The Washington Post, 19/2/09
- As many as a quarter of Americans suffer a foodborne illness each year.
- Scientists have counted over 250 food-related types of illness, but the exact toll of bacteria is not known.
- According to an Associated Press calculation that used the Center for Disease Control and Prevention’s formula and current population estimates, there are about 87 million cases of foodborne illness, 371,000 hospitalizations, and 5,700 deaths.
Don’t be afraid of the food you eat! Take Natren Trenev Trio which has 30 billion cfu of beneficial bacteria to fight bad bugs.
“Serious Infections Rising in U.S. Children: Study”
- According to U.S. researchers, children in the United States are increasingly developing serious head and neck infections with a drug-resistant type of “superbug” bacteria called MRSA.
- According to Dr. Steven Sobol of Emory University, studies have shown increases in community-acquired infections of the skin and soft tissue, but some institutions have observed MRSA infections among children with head and neck infections, such as those involving the ear, nose, throat or sinuses.
- Nearly 60% of all MRSA infections of the head and neck among children in the study were acquired outside hospitals. Most were in children’s ears.
Give your children Natren Superdophilus, Bifidoante and Bulgaricum® to help boost their immune system against harmful bugs in the community.
“Report Shows U.S. Only Half Ready for Flu Pandemic”
- A report from the U.S. Health and Human Services department shows that U.S. states have made progress in stockpiling drugs and preparing to vaccinate people in case of a flu pandemic but are far behind in plans for the ensuing months of disruption.
- Most health experts agree that a pandemic of something, probably influenza, is inevitable and the U.S. government has been pushing states to develop preparedness plans.
- Many states were still thinking in terms of “an incident” instead of planning for months of disruption that would affect the whole country and the world.
Don’t take chances with your health! Be sure to Take Natren® Trenev Trio®, especially during flu season to build up immunity against bad bacteria.
“C-Section May Raise Kids’ Asthma Risk: Study”
- Children born by cesarean delivery are at increased risk for developing asthma, particularly if their parents have allergies.
- Overall, children delivered by c-section were 79 percent more likely to develop asthma than children born vaginally. The association between c-section and asthma was even stronger for children born to one or two allergic parents than for children born to parents without allergies.
Whether your child was born vaginally or through c-section, give him or her the best start possible with Natren Life Start®, which is designed specifically for infants and toddlers.
“Resistance to Flu Drug Widespread in U.S.”
- The U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) reported that virtually all cases of the most common strain of flu circulating in the United States now resist the main drug used to treat it.
- CDC Researchers said that 98 percent of all flu samples from the H1N1 strain were resistant to Roche AG’s Tamiflu, a pill that can both treat flu and prevent infection. Four patients, including two children, were infected with the resistant strain and have died.
- This study suggests that the virus can rapidly evade the effects of prescribed pills.
To fight drug-resistant bacteria, take Natren Trenev Trio® which contains superior, powerful probiotics to protect your health and boost your immunity.
“Respiration Virus Common in U.S. Children: Study”
- According to U.S. researchers, a highly contagious respiratory virus is far more widespread among children than once thought and puts more of them in the hospital than influenza.
- The researchers projected that the respiratory syncytial virus, known as RSV, affects 2.1 million children under the age of 5 each year.
- The virus is responsible for causing hospitalisation in children three times as often as influenza.
Provide your children with Natren Superdophilus, Bifidonate, and Bulgaricum® powders that have beneficial bacteria to help build their immune systems to guard against harmful bugs.
“Two Hospital Patients with Bacterial Infections Die”
- According to a hospital in Chicago, two intensive-care patients died after becoming infected with a common bacterium, acinetobacter.
- “Acinetobacter infection has become an increasingly serious problem in hospitals over the last 5 to 10 years,” said Dr. Brad Spellberg, an assistant professor of medicine at Harbor-UCLA Medical Center and member of the Antimicrobial Availability Task Force of the Infectious Diseases Society of America.
- Dr. Spellberg also stated, “It actually is terrifying because acinetobacter is one of the small number of bacteria that we have seen that can become resistant to every antibiotic on the planet.”
Take Natren Trenev Trio® which is fortified with 30 billion colony forming units of beneficial probiotic bacteria to help fight bacterial infections.
“Early Probiotic Consumption Stops Gut Problems: Study”
- According to a recent study, probiotic bacteria may reduce the occurrence of gut complications in premature infants, suggests new research with piglets.
- The study, published in the Journal of Nutrition, adds to an ever-growing body of research reporting benefits of the inclusion of probiotics in infant formula.
- Researchers found that the occurrence and severity of necrotizing entercolitis (NEC), a serious gastrointestinal disease that frequently affects premature newborns, were reduced when the piglets were fed the probiotic-containing formula. In addition to reduction in occurrence, a reduction in NEC severity scores was observed in the animals fed the probiotic formula.
- NEC symptoms in pigs closely resemble those observed in humans in terms of the clinical and histological characteristics.
Give your baby the best possible start with Natren® Life Start® so that he or she has the beneficial bacteria necessary to live a healthy life.
“Researchers Link C-section Babies To Asthma Risk”
- Researchers have linked babies born by Caesarean section to be more likely to develop asthma than children delivered naturally.
- When babies are born by C-section, they are not exposed to their mother’s bacteria when they pass through the birth canal, something that helps prime the immune system.
- Researchers stated that children born by C-section were nearly 80 percent more likely to develop asthma compared to those born vaginally.
Whether your baby is born naturally or through C-section, be sure he or she receives the vital probiotics found in Natren® Life Start®.
“Study Says Plavix, Heartburn Pills May Not Mix”
Wall Street Journal, 11/11/08
- According to a new study, popular heartburn pills may keep the blood thinner Plavix from working effectively and properly.
- People who combine a heartburn pill with Plavix have a 50% higher risk of heart attack or other cardiac event compared with those taking Plavix by itself.
- About half the patients on Plavix take a proton-pump inhibitor to prevent stomach bleeding and ulcers, frequent side effects of Plavix.
Take Natren® Trenev Trio® to help maintain normal cholesterol levels and Gastro-pH® and Bulgaricum to help alleviate indigestion quickly.
“New Guidelines for Managing Irritable Bowel Syndrome”
Washington Post, 22/12/08
- An estimated 7% to 10% of the world’s population has irritable bowel syndrome (IBS).
- The causes of IBS, perhaps the disease most commonly diagnosed by gastroenterologists, are still unknown.
- The American College of Gastroenterology recently released new guidelines for managing IBS, which included information on the potential benefits of probiotics, “good bacteria.”
Do not let IBS take control of your daily routines; take Natren® Trenev Trio® to help regulate your GI tract.
“Early Infections May Increase Arthritis Risk”
- According to Swedish researchers, babies with serious infections during their first year of life appear more likely to develop rheumatoid arthritis at an early age.
- Swedish findings raise the possibility infections may somehow change the way an immature immune system develops.
- The study found that children who had serious infections early on were more than twice as likely to develop rheumatoid arthritis as young adults.
Take Natren Trenev Trio to help prevent infections and aid in decreasing inflammation linked to arthritis.
“Old and New Viruses Spread By Air Travel, Crowding”
- The tourists traveling by plane and the growth of cities are combining to help new and old infections spread around the world.
- According to researchers, viruses are finding new homes or returning to places where they were eradicated.
- Using new genetic sequencing techniques, Dr. Ian Lipkin of Columbia University has identified 75 new pathogens—including a new rhinovirus that has caused serious disease in children around the world.
With the large scale of infectious diseases, it is important to protect your body by boosting your immune system with Natren probiotics.
“Yoghurt Can Benefit Bladder Cancer, Say Researchers”
- Swedish scientists say that two servings of yoghurt per day can reduce the risk of developing bladder cancer by up to 40 percent.
- The study, which assessed 82,000 patients over nine years, found a reduced risk of cancer in men by 36% and a 45% reduced risk in women.
- According to one of the researchers, “Cultured milk products, such as yoghurt, contain lactic acid bacteria, which have been shown to suppress bladder cancer in rats. Our research suggests a high intake may reduce the risk.”
Natren Yogurt Starter® has two probiotic strains that work to break down milk proteins, which makes this yogurt a healthy source of protein and calcium.
“Science: The Wider Impacts of Gut Health”
- The effects of probiotic strains on gut health are well established.
- Australian reviewers reported that the risk of necrotizing enterocolitis, one of the most common gastrointestinal problems in premature babies, may be cut by 74% by probiotic supplementation.
- Probiotic strains have been reported to reduce constipation, diarrhoea, and abdominal pain and nausea/vomiting linked to stress.
Natren Trenev Trio provides 30 billion colony forming units (cfu) of three probiotic super strains to enhance digestion, improve nutrient absorption, stimulate proper elimination, and maximize immune function.
“Salmonella Outbreak Sickens At Least 32”
Los Angeles Times, 23/10/08
- At least 32 people have fallen ill with salmonella after eating meals prepared at a North Hollywood central kitchen of an L.A. area nonprofit preschool group.
- Ten children and five adults have been hospitalised.
- Dr. Johnathan Fielding, director of the Los Angeles Department of Public Health, said, “It’s a large outbreak. And the reason it’s a large outbreak is because you have a central kitchen supplying” the preschools.
Make sure your entire family is safe; take Natren Trenev Trio in order to help maximise immunity against food poisoning.
“Market: How Global Consumers View Digestive Health”
- Consumers with digestive health issues draw real benefits from probiotic products that generally deliver on their functional promise.
- Gut health products have a very real benefit on heartburn, irritable bowel syndrome, stomach ulcers, and digestive problems.
Help protect yourself against a digestive crisis. Take Natren® Trenev Trio® because it delivers on its promise with a 100% potency guarantee and International Drug GMP (Good Manufacturing Practice) certification for real benefit on digestive problems.
“Worrisome Infection Eludes a Leading Children’s Vaccine”
New York Times, 14/10/08
- A highly drug-resistant germ has become a common cause of meningitis, pneumonia, and other life-threatening conditions in young children. This strain of strep bacteria can conquer almost all antibiotics in pediatrics, and has dodged a vaccine credited with causing the number of serious infections in children to plummet.
- With a particular type of pneumococcus, Serotype 19A, steadily rising, the frequency of meningitis, pneumonia, and bloodstream infections are of great concern. A fourfold increase in life-threatening infections among the elderly has also occurred.
- Dr. Beall of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention said, “The pneumococcus has shown an extraordinary ability to evolve to our strategies.”
With the increasing prevalence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria, be sure that you are safe. Take Natren Trenev Trio® to help build up your immunity against these harmful superbugs.
“More Americas Have, Get Treated For High Blood Pressure”
Science Daily, 15/10/08
- More American adults have hypertension (high blood pressure) and prehypertension than ever before.
- An analysis of data from the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute of the National Institutes of Health stated that the nation’s obesity epidemic is a major factor in the increased prevalence of hypertension.
- Being overweight or obese accounted for part but not all of the increase in high blood pressure among different age and race/ethnicity groups.
Take Natren Bulgaricum® which works to support your resident flora and aid in digestion.
“The Effectiveness of Probiotics in IBS”
Medical News Today, 7/10/08
- Several studies presented at the American College of Gastroenterology’s 73rd Annual Scientific Meeting highlighted the safety and efficacy of probiotics in improving symptoms and normalizing bowel movement frequency in patients suffering from constipation or diarrhea related to Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS).
- A systemic review of the efficacy of probiotics in IBS that included 19 randomized controlled trials found that probiotics are effective in IBS.
Fight against IBS;take Natren®Life Start2® which helps relieve constipation, gas, bloating and helps alleviate diarrhoea, cramps and abdominal discomfort.
“Jump Seen in Staph-Linked Flu Deaths in Kids”
Washington Post, 6/10/08
- According to a new government report, more children have died from flu because they also had staph infections.
- During the 2006-2007 flu season, there was more than a fivefold increase in hard-to-treat complications.
- Mayo Clinic infectious disease specialist, Dr. Gregory Poland, stated “even healthy children develop complications and die almost before anything much can be done for them.”
- The percentage of those who died from the flu and had bacterial infections jumped from 6 percent to almost 36 percent. Most had staph infections, and 60 percent of those involved the dangerous MRSA bug.
Help protect your family from harmful bacteria this year. Take Natren Trenev Trio® to help maximise immune function.
“Acid Reflux Disease Hits Americans Hard”
Los Angeles Times, 6/10/08
- Approximately 60% of people experience occasional episodes of acid reflux, and about 25% deal with the problem on a weekly basis. The number of people hospitalized with acid reflux as either a primary or secondary diagnosis reached 3 million in 2005—an increase of 216% from 1998.
- According to Dr. Stuart Spechler, chief of gastroenterology at the Dallas Veterans Affairs Medical Center and professor of medicine at the University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas, reducing stomach acid could make individuals more prone to infections like pneumonia.
- Medications used to treat acid reflux may also be contributing to the problem, plus they may block absorption of vitamins and minerals such as B-12 and calcium, which could lead to hip fractures.
Take Natren Gastro-pH® chewable wafers and Bulgaricum for fast-acting relief from acid reflux.
“Lawmakers Investigate Wyeth Vitamin Claims”
- According to a letter released to Wyeth, two U.S. lawmakers are investigating advertising claims by Wyeth that promote its Centrum Cardio vitamin as a cholesterol-lowering product.
- The lawmakers wrote, “We are concerned that these statements may be misleading to the general public.”
Help maintain normal cholesterol levels by taking Natren® Trenev Trio® which contains three active probitic super strains: Lactobacillus acidophilus, Bifidobacterium bifidum, and Lactobacillus bulgaricus.
“Bacterial Infections May be Overlooked in SIDS Cases”
HealthDay News, 2/9/08
- An Australian study suggests that bacterial infections may be an overlooked cause of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS).
- Infections on the babies who had died were caused by Staphylococcus aureus, a dangerous bacteria that can produce potentially deadly toxins.
- One researcher said that the relatively high proportion of SIDS babies in this study who had S. aureus in sterile sites suggests that a number of them died due to the infection.
Help fight against bacterial infections caused by Staph. Take Natren Trenev Trio® to help protect against these harmful bacteria.
“E. coli Outbreak in Oklahoma Kills 1, Sickens 200”
Yahoo! News, 2/9/08
- According to State health officials, an E. coli outbreak linked to a restaurant in northeastern Oklahoma has sickened more than 200 people and killed at least one person.
- An exact source of the contamination has not been pinpointed.
- State epidemiologist Dr. Kristy Bradly said, “The complexity of this outbreak and the necessity to be extremely thorough in our investigation means we still have more questions than answers.”
Help protect against harmful bacteria in your food. Take Natren Trenev Trio to help build your immune system against these harmful bugs.
“Cleaning up the Supplements Industry: Call for Comments”
- The founder of a US supplements company received the most severe punishment yet to be handed out for fraud in the industry: a 25-year jail sentence.
- In the US, the whole market suffers from the irresponsible and misleading behavior of a number of rogue players. The industry, as a whole, has been accused of being unregulated.
- It is becoming increasingly difficult for responsible firms to conduct their business, despite repeated calls from trade groups for the industry to clean itself through self-regulation.
Don’t be misled by companies whose claims are not supported by science. Take Natren probiotics because they have guaranteed potency of specific strains through a printed expiration date and they are refrigerated from manufacturing through delivery.
“Long-Term Ills Tied to Bad Food”
Washington Post, 2/9/08
- According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the number of people who develop long-term health problems from food poisoning is increasing.
- Some people are now attributing many health problems to food-borne infections: Campylobacter, a bacterium associated with raw chicken, is a leading cause of sudden acute paralysis; certain strains of salmonella can cause arthritis; and E. coli O157:H7 can release toxins that cause hemolytic uremic syndrome, a kidney disorder that in 25 to 50 percent of cases leads to kidney failure.
- The CDC estimates there are 76 million cases of food-borne disease in the United States annually and an estimated 5,000 to 9,000 Americans die each year from food poisoning.
Stay safe from foodborne illnesses; take Natren Trenev Trio® to help protect against these bad bacteria.
“FDA Urges More Caution over TNF Blocker Infections”
- After dozens of patients contracted severe fungal infections and died, U.S. health regulators ordered stronger warnings for the so-called TNF blocker medications used to treat rheumatoid arthritis, Crohn’s disease, and other conditions.
- According to Jeffrey Siegel, a clinical team leader in the FDA’s Division of Anesthesia, Analgesia and Rheumatology Products, current warnings “must be upgraded to strongly warn doctors to consider” the possibility of fungal infections in patients who are seriously ill or who are not responding to current antibiotics.
- Rheumatoid arthritis, Crohn’s disease and other diseases are caused in part by inflammation.
- The FDA is also reviewing whether the TNF blocker drugs are linked to an increased risk of cancer in children and teenagers.
Take Natren probiotics to maintain a healthy immune system and use beneficial bacteria to help fight fungal infections.
“Nebraska Firm Recalls Beef Due to E. coli: USDA”
- The U.S. Agriculture Department stated that an Omaha meat-packing company is recalling 1.2 million pounds of beef due to possible contamination of a particularly dangerous strain of E. coli.
- The USDA labeled the recall “Class 1,” which means there is reasonable probability that the beef will cause serious, adverse health consequences or death. It is the most dangerous level of the three classes of recall.
- Last month the beef company recalled 5.3 million pounds of material used in making ground beef after 40 illnesses were reported in connection with its ground beef.
Do not let foodborne diseases and illnesses become a serious health risk; take Natren® probiotics to protect your well-being by boosting your immune system.
“Toxic Chemicals Found in Common Scented Laundry Products, Air Fresheners”
Science Daily, 24/7/08
- According to recent study, six top-selling laundry products and air fresheners were found to emit dozens of different chemicals but none of those chemicals was listed on the product label.
- According to Anne Steinemann, a University of Washington professor of civil and environmental engineering and of public affairs, five of the six products in the study emitted one or more carcinogenic “hazardous air pollutants” which are considered by the Environmental Protection Agency to have no safe exposure level.
- In a larger study, other brands of personal care products, air fresheners and laundry products were found to contain similar hazardous chemicals.
Take Natren Trenev Trio® to help get rid of toxic or hazardous chemicals in your body.
“Food Allergies Trigger Multibillion-Dollar Specialty Market”
Washington Post, 8/6/08
- According to a New York research firm, the market for food-allergy and intolerance products is projected to reach $3.9 billion this year.
- An estimated 12 million people in the United States have food allergies, and another 2 million have celiac disease, a disorder in which the body’s immune system attacks itself when exposed to gluten, a protein found in wheat, barley and rye. These figures are expected to rise.
- According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the number of children with peanut allergies alone has doubled in the past decade. Food-induced anaphylaxis, a potentially fatal allergic reaction, causes about 30,000 emergency room visits and 150 to 200 deaths annually.
Take Natren Superdophilus, Bifidonate and Bulgaricum® to help alleviate allergy upsets and to support your health.
“Probiotic Criteria Crucial for Product Quality, Hears Industry”
- At the Probiotech 2008 conference, the professional event for probiotic companies around the world, specialists discussed the probiotic standards and industry. Too many manufacturers fail to adhere to the criteria set forth by the World Health Organization and the Food and Agriculture Organization in 2002.
- Dr. Mary Ellen Sanders, a probiotic specialist who helped establish the original guidelines, believes that the biggest issue in the US is that there is no legalized definition of a ‘probiotic,’ resulting in products that do not meet minimum criteria.
- Criteria include a definition of genus, species and strain, as well as a safety assessment and efficacy research in humans.
Take Natren® superior probiotics that have proven-effective super strains, guaranteed potency through a printed expiration date and International GMP (Good Manufacturing Practice) certification.
“Drug-Resistant High Blood Pressure on the Rise”
The New York Times, 24/6/08
- According to experts of the American Heart Associations, high blood pressure, the most commonly diagnosed condition in the United States, is becoming increasingly resistant to drugs that lower it.
- One in three Americans has high blood pressure, an underlying cause of heart attacks, strokes, kidney disease and heart failure.
- Dr. Neil Poulter of the International Center for Circulatory Health said, “High blood pressure is currently the biggest single contributor to death around the world because it is so common.”
With high blood pressure becoming more drug-resistant, many people fear for their health. Maintain your well-being by taking Natren potent probiotics.
“Fast Patient Turnover Spreads Germs in Hospitals”
- Overcrowded hospitals trying to cope with growing patient loads may be helping the spread of drug-resistant germs.
- Several studies show that hospitals filled to capacity are more likely to have outbreaks of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and other infections.
- According to the Journal of the American Medical Association, MRSA killed an estimated 19,000 Americans in 2005 and made 94,000 seriously ill.
Boost your immune system with beneficial bacteria found in Natren Trenev Trio in order to help protect against antibiotic-resistant germs.
“Big Haul of Crohn’s Genes Shows Disease Complexity”
Scientists have linked 32 genetic variations to Crohn’s disease, the most common form of inflammatory bowel disease, highlighting the complexity of many common diseases and the difficulties facing researchers seeking treatments.
- New research had tripled the number of genetic regions implicated in Crohn’s, and many more were probably still undiscovered.
- The lead researcher said, “These explain only about a fifth of the genetic risk, which implies that there may be hundreds of genes implicated in the disease, each increasing susceptibility by a small amount.”
Take Natren® Trenev Trio® to regulate digestion and help minimise inflammation.
“Cranberries, Probiotics May Fight Ulcer-Causing Bacteria in Children”
- New research shows that probiotics clear the stomachs of children of a bacterial strain known to cause ulcers and cancer.
- Results from the trial involving children with Helicobacter pylori infections suggest that taking Lactobacillus may eradicate the bacteria.
- In vitro studies have reported that probiotics can inhibit the adhesion of many pathogenic bacteria in the mouth, urinary tract, and gastro-intestinal tract. The new study supports this and strengthens the science by showing that probiotics produce meaningful benefits in children.
Keep your children healthy with Natren Bulgraicum® which has probiotic super strains proven effective against Helicobacter pylori.
“More Suspects in Frustrating Salmonella Probe”
Associated Press, 10/7/08
- Three common ingredients for salsa are now suspects in the salmonella poisonings that have become the nation’s largest food-borne outbreak in at least a decade.
- Seven weeks into their investigation, federal health officials aren’t shortening the list of potential culprits but adding to it. The toll of the current salmonella outbreak far surpasses recent large outbreaks of any food-borne disease.
- The food safety chief at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention said, “We are quite sure that neither tomatoes nor jalapenos explain the entire outbreak at this point…we’re presuming that both of them have caused illness.”
With the growing food recall, you can never be sure that the food you eat is safe. Take Natren Trenev Trio to help strengthen your immune system against food-borne illnesses.
“Tomatoes Still Lead List of Suspects in Salmonella Probe”
The Washington Post, 2/7/08
- The Food and Drug Administration, along with the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, are expanding their ongoing probe to include other types of produce as well as tomatoes.
- The current outbreak has sickened more than 850 people in 36 states.
- Investigators felt the need to broaden the probe, because more illnesses have been reported since the FDA issued its warning about the tomatoes on June 7.
Take Natren® Trenev Trio® in order to build up immunity against harmful bugs such as salmonella.
“E. Coli Illnesses Prompt Beef Recall”
The New York Times, 3/7/08
- Supermarkets are pulling more than 530,000 pounds of beef that may be contaminated with E.coli in the wake of an Agriculture Department warning that the beef, supplied by a Nebraska company, may be responsible for at least 40 illnesses since May.
- The Agriculture Department has labelled the recall Class I, which carries a high health risk.
- The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention estimate that for every incident of potentially E.coli that is reported, 20 go unreported.
Protect yourself from food-borne illnesses such as E. coli by taking Natren Superdophilus, Biidonate and Bulgaricum®.
“More Than 4,000 Danes May Have Salmonella”
The Los Angeles Times, 2/7/08
- Danish health officials fear more than 4,000 people may be infected with salmonella.
- Officials from the Ministry of Health have confirmed more than 300 cases of salmonella and they believe that the cause of the outbreak is probably meat.
- There are about 30 new cases are confirmed per day and there are no signs of it slowing down.
With the recent surge in food recalls, it is now more important than ever to protect yourself from harmful food bugs. Natren Trenev Trio provides three potent super strains of beneficial probiotic bacteria to help fight these bad bacteria.
“Early Treatment of Stomach Bug May Cut Cancer Risk”
- Experiments in mice show that promptly treating stomach infection that can trigger cancer seems to reduce the likelihood of it happening.
- The bacterium, Helicobacter pylori, is known to cause stomach ulcers and can eventually lead to gastric cancer.
Help protect yourself from Helicobacter pylori ; take Natren® Trenev Trio®, which has Lactobacillus acidophilus, proven effective in battling stomach bugs.
“Salmonella: Trickier than We Imagined”
- A team from the University of Rochester Medical Center has identified a protein that allows the salmonella bacteria to maintain a low profile in the body, giving the bacteria crucial time to quietly gain a foothold in an organism before the immune system is roused to fight the invader.
- According to Dr. Jun Sun, the leader of the study, “…it may be that Salmonella is especially equipped with tools to allow it to evade the immune system early on, growing quietly and then really making the host quite ill. Salmonella is trickier than we imagined.”
- Salmonella Typhimurium and Salmonella enteritidis together cause more than half the Salmonella illnesses seen in people.
Protect yourself from tricky germs; take Natren Trenev Trio to build your immunity against these bugs.
“Probe Heads to Florida, Mexico”
- Federal investigators are searching in Florida and Mexico for the cause of the current Salmonella outbreak which has sickened more than 550 people in 32 states and the District of Columbia.
- The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention officials said the outbreak is not over.
- A top FDA food safety official stressed that investigations have not identified a particular farm or warehouse as a source and that the contamination could have occurred at any point between cultivation and consumption.
Because not all the food you eat is safe, take Natren Bulgaricum® with every meal to fight food-borne bacteria and to optimize internal wellness.
Staph Cases ‘Steadily Growing’ in U.S.”
- According to a recent study, hospitalizations associated with a drug-resistant form of Staphyloccus aureus (MRSA) has doubled over the past six years.
- The rise in illnesses from MRSA stemmed mostly from an explosion in skin and soft-tissue infections.
- The numbers of other infections in forms other than blood poisoning and pneumonia have tripled.
Take Natren® Trenev Trio® to fight against antibiotic-resistant bacteria and help build a strong immune system.
“Probiotics Give Endurance Athletes’ Immune Boost: Study”
- According to a recent study published in British Journal of Sports supplements of probiotics may boost the immune health of long-distance runners, protecting them from respiratory illnesses.
- Friendly bacteria may produce benefits in endurance athletes undergoing strenuous training.
- The number of days of symptoms of UTI was halved and severity was lessened when the athletes took the probiotic, compared to the placebo.
Whether you are active or not, good probiotics are always a necessity. Take Trenev Trio® or Superdophilus, Bifidonate and Bulgaricum to build your personal immunity!
“Athletic Trainers See Rise in MRSA Infections: Study”
· A recent U.S. survey found that more than half of athletic trainers said they have treated an athlete for skin infections caused by the “superbug” bacteria Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA).
· MRSA can cause serious and potentially fatal problems such as pneumonia, bloodstream infections, and flesh-eating disease.
· Infections can be spread into cuts and scrapes during contact sports, as well as from shared items.
Whenever you are exposed to contact with others, be sure you are protected from MRSA. Take Superdophilus® along with Trenev Trio to ensure your protection.
Here is the testimonial:
“I wanted to drop you a line regarding the enormous success I have had with your Natren powders No 1, 2 and 3.
I had been suffering, as it turns out, from a low grade condition of acid reflux, which never totally left me and would usually rear its ugly head about the time I had to sing a performance. I had been controlling it with the very expensive Protonix, but it seemed to be always lying in wait, ready to attack.
I called you, and we discussed the best way to approach my problem. You suggested the 1,2,3 program, with the three bottles of powdered product, which I took every morning, a half hour before breakfast.
That was last February. I haven’t had any acid reflux since…and my voice is in the best condition it has been for years. For a professional singer…that is like being a plumber, who has just been handed a brand new set of tools.
I recommend your product without reservation.”
Former Principle Baritone, Metropolitan Opera
“Chronic Stomach Inflammation Boosts Cancer Risk”, Washingtonpost.com, 3/6/08
- According to scientists at MIT, a person’s risk of cancer increases if he or she suffers from DNA-damaging chronic inflammation of the intestine or stomach, such as ulcerative colitis.
- Researchers have known that inflammation caused by infectious agents, such as Helicobacter pylori and hepatitis C, produce cytokines—chemicals that can foster cancerous cell proliferation and suppress cell death. This increases the risk of stomach and liver cancers.
- According to the new study, if the DNA repair system is not functioning properly, the damage could induce cell mutations which can lead to cancer.
Help protect yourself by taking Natren® Trenev Trio® which has bacteria proven effective to reduce inflammation.
Allergies Cost Americans $11 Billion: Survey”, Reuters.com, 12/6/08
- According to government statistics, Americans spent $11 billion on doctors’ bills, prescription drugs and other treatments for allergies in 2005.
- According to the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, allergies sent 22 million Americans to their doctors in 2005.
- Patients spent nearly double the $6 billion spent in 2000 on allergies.
Don’t let allergies slow you down! Take Natren Trenev Trio to help alleviate allergy symptoms by calming your over-reactive immune system.
“Drug-Resistant Bug Kills Young and Healthy in U.S.”, Reuters.com, 3/6/08
- U.S. researchers said that a germ that usually causes pimples or skin rashes caused fatal pneumonia in at least 24 otherwise young and healthy people during the 2006-2007 flu season.
- According to officials from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, many of the cases were caused by a drug-resistant form called methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus or MRSA.
- Some patients died within four days of contracting the virus and many were not treated for MRSA; doctors had no idea what sort of illness their patient had contracted. The leader of the study said, “It’s all very concerning…this is a disease that can strike otherwise very healthy people…also this is a disease that follows influenza.”
To help protect yourself from antibiotic-resistant germs, take Natren Trenev Trio with proven effective probiotic super strains.
“Probiotics Weight Loss After Bypass Surgery”, Reuters.com , 22/5/08
- In a recent Stanford University study, obese patients who took probiotics after undergoing gastric bypass surgery lost more weight than patients who had the surgery but did not take the supplements.
- There was a significantly greater improvement in quality of life in patients taking probiotics compared with those taking placebo.
- Dr. John M. Morton, the presenter of the study at Digestive Disease Week, suggests that the source of the weight increase may be related to high bacteria levels.
Take Natren's Superdophilus, Bifidonate, Bulgaricum® to populate your gastrointestinal tract with proven “good” bacteria.
“Pandemic Flu Threat Remains Substantial, Health Experts Say”, Washingtonpost.com, 6/5/08
- According to health experts, the world still faces a substantial threat of a flu pandemic.
- Scientists fear that the H5N1 strain of bird flu virus could mutate into a form that spreads easily among humans, potentially sparking a pandemic that kills millions.
- Keiji Fukuda, the coordinator for the World Health Organization’s Global Influenza Program, said, “We can’t delude ourselves. The threat of a pandemic influenza has not diminished…one day we will face a pandemic but we don’t know when.”
Take Natren® Trenev Trio® to keep your immune system operating at peak performance, especially during flu season.
“Gut Microflora and Obesity – Nestle Expands the Possibilities”, Nutraingredients.com, 9/5/08
- A new study suggests that modifying the population of bacteria in the gut may improve the regulation of glycemic control and reverse the insulin resistance that occurs with obesity.
- At a recent scientific symposium, Dr. Kieran Touhy noted that obese animals have significantly lower bifidobacteria levels than their lean counterparts.
- The study shows that direct modulation of the gut microflora could directly affect metabolism, as well as influencing the maintenance of whole body glucose equilibrium, independent of food intake or obesity.
Keep your gut microflora in balance with Natren Healthy Start System® :
Step One: Superdophilus
Step Two: Bifidonate
Step Three: Bularicum.
“Probiotics: Business of Bacteria”, LAtimes.com, 12/5/08
- Researchers believe that certain probiotic strains hold promise in a number of areas.
- A number of studies have shown that probiotics can, indeed, boost the immune system.
- Probiotics counteract the side effects of taking antibiotics, which upset the balance of naturally-occurring microbes in the gut, enabling proliferation of a diarrhea-causing bacterium, Clostridium Difficile.
Take superior probiotics that have a guaranteed potency through a printed expiration date and International GMP (Good Manufacturing Practice) certification – Natren, the leader in probiotics, recognised world-wide.
Lactoferrin and Probiotics Improve Results of Helicobacter pylori Therapy
Author: Karla Gale, MS & Désirée Lie, MD, MSEd
Release Date: May 25, 2007
Standard treatment with two antibiotics and a proton pump inhibitor fails to eradicate Helicobacter pylori in about 25% of patients treated for gastritis or peptic ulcer disease. Investigators in Italy now report that supplementation with bovine lactoferrin and probiotic bacteria can boost cure rates and reduce side effects.
Lead investigator Dr. Nicola de Bortoli at the University of Pisa and colleagues attribute treatment failure to bacterial resistance and side effects that hinder patient compliance. Other investigators have considered the addition of a third antibiotic to the regimen to increase treatment efficacy.
In contrast, Dr. de Bortoli's team suggests adjuvant therapy as an alternative approach. Lactoferrin is a glycoprotein found in bodily secretions involved in immune defense, the researchers explain in the American Journal of Gastroenterology for May. Evidence suggests it harbors bactericidal efficacy against H. pylori.
Probiotics have had a therapeutic influence in other gastroenteric illnesses, including inflammatory bowel disease and viral infections. The probiotic capsule was selected because of its high concentrations of multiple lactic-acid producing bacteria — Lactobacillus spp., Bifidobacterium spp, and Streptococcus thermophilus.
In an open-label, prospective trial, the physicians randomized 206 patients with H. pylori infection to standard therapy for 7 days (esomeprazole, clarithromycin, and amoxicillin) or standard therapy plus bovine lactoferrin and the probiotic.
Compared with the adjunct therapy group, significantly more control patients reported episodes of nausea, diarrhea, a metallic taste in the mouth, glossitis, and abdominal pain.
Dr. de Bortoli and associates theorize that combining lactoferrin and probiotics with the standard therapy "provokes a synergist effect by launching attacks from different directions against H. pylori that could lead to a complete clearance of the bacterial infection."
Am J Gastroenterol. 2007;102:951-956.
According to the authors of the current study, the most widely endorsed therapy for H pylori infection associated with peptic ulcer disease is triple therapy consisting of amoxicillin, clarithromycin, and a proton pump inhibitor 2 times per day for 7 days. The reported efficacy of this triple therapy is 74% to 76%, but adverse effects (diarrhoea and nausea) and the potential for antibiotic resistance have resulted in a search for alternative strategies.
Bovine lactoferrin is a multifunctional iron-binding glycoprotein found in milk, mucosal secretions, and pancreatic and seminal fluids and is a factor in host defense against a range of bacteria, whereas probiotics are live nonpathogenic microbial food that have a favorable immunoregulatory effect in gut disease and have been demonstrated to be beneficial in inflammatory bowel disease, irritable bowel syndrome, and gut
- Addition of bovine lactoferrin and probiotics to standard triple therapy for H pylori–associated peptic ulcer disease is associated with better eradication at 8 weeks vs standard triple therapy alone.
- Rate of adverse effects is significantly reduced by the addition of bovine lactoferrin and probiotics to standard triple therapy for H pylori–associated peptic ulcer disease.
Exercise Protects Against Premenopausal Breast Cancer
Author: Zosia Chustecka,Penny Murata,MD.
Release Date: May15, 2008
That exercise reduces the risk for postmenopausal breast cancer is well known, but a new study shows that it can also protect against premenopausal breast cancer. The study, published online May 13 in the Journal of the National Cancer Institute, also provides some details on the amount of exercise that is involved. The most active women, who showed a 23% reduction in the risk for premenopausal breast cancer, reported exercise that was equivalent to running 3.25 hours a week or walking 13 hours a week. The strongest association for a lowered risk for premenopausal breast cancer was with activity between the ages of 12 and 22 years; the next strongest association was with activity between the ages of 23 and 34 years. No association for reduced risk for premenopausal breast cancer was apparent after age 35 years. However, many other studies have shown that exercise during adulthood reduces the risk for postmenopausal breast cancer.
"We don't have a lot of prevention strategies for premenopausal breast cancer, but our findings clearly show that physical activity during adolescence and young adulthood can pay off in the long run by reducing a woman's risk of early breast cancer," commented lead investigator Graham Colditz, MD, DrPH, from the Siteman Cancer Center, Washington University School of Medicine, in St. Louis, Missouri. This is just 1 more reason to encourage young women to exercise regularly," he told journalists. Dr. Colditz and colleagues analyzed data from 64,777 premenopausal women involved in the Nurses' Health Study II. During the 6 years of follow-up, 550 premenopausal women developed breast cancer.
The women completed detailed questionnaires about their occupational and leisure-time activities. Because self-reporting can be unreliable, the researchers used data from an earlier validation study on past-year adult activity to correct for measurement error. When they did this, Dr. Colditz and colleagues found a 39% lower breast cancer risk for total lifetime physical activity in the most active women compared with the least active women. This suggests that "our original estimate of a 23% lower risk was an underestimate," they commented.
The most important association with risk for premenopausal breast cancer was total activity. It did not seem to matter much what the activity was; the differences between strenuous, moderate, and walking activities were not statistically significant. "You don't have to be a marathon runner to get the risk-reducing effects of exercise," Dr. Colditz commented.
Exactly how exercise protects against breast cancer is unclear, but it is thought to work through hormone-related mechanisms. Physical activity can delay the start of menstruation and lengthen the time between periods, and strenuous exercise can stop ovulation. All of these effects would reduce a woman's lifetime exposure to estrogen and its mitogenic effects. "Although the underlying mechanisms require further study, this research support the benefits of regular exercise during all ages among women," Dr. Colditz and colleagues commented. Physical activity is 1 of the very few risk factors for breast cancer that can be modified, and the finding that exercise appears to protect against breast cancer has public health implications, they added.
Further evidence that exercise protects against breast cancer comes from a review of 62 studies published online May 13 in the British Journal of Sports Medicine. Nearly half of these studies showed a dose-response effect, researchers Dr. Christine Friedenreich, from the Alberta Cancer Board, in Calgary, Canada, and Dr. Anne E. Cust, from the School of Population Health, University of Melbourne in Australia, note, and overall, they show that exercise reduces the risk for breast cancer by about 25%.
Women who had undertaken a lot of physical activity throughout their life had the lowest risk for breast cancer, the researchers found. All types of activity reduced the risk for breast cancer, but recreational activity had a greater effect than occupational or household activity. Moderate and vigorous activity had equal benefits. This review adds a few details to what is already known about the effect of exercise on reducing the risk for breast cancer, the researchers write. "Consistent and strong observational pidemiologic evidence" already exists to show that physical activity reduces the risk for breast cancer, and this evidence has been classed as "convincing," they point out.
Dr. Maruti is supported by the National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health. Dr. Colditz is supported by the American Cancer Society. Dr. Friedenreich was supported by career awards from the Canadian Institutes of Health Research and the Alberta Heritage Foundation for Medical Research, and Dr. Cust is supported by a Research Scholar Award from the Cancer Institute NSW, Australia.J Natl Cancer Inst. 2008;100:728-737. Br J Sports Med. Published online May 13, 2008.
Troubled with Vaginitis? (Vaginal Thrush) (At last – a sane approach to an itchy problem)by Calvin J. Hobel, M.D
Millions of women suffer each year from vaginal yeast overgrowth – an irritating condition known as vaginitis (vaginal thrush). A 1996 Diflucan pharmaceutical survey shows 85 percent of all teenage and adult females in the United States are plagued with vaginitis and its itchy, messy, discharge at least once in their lives. Many of these women will continue to suffer with vaginal infections for a period of years. Although prescription drugs and over-the-counter preparations are on the market today to treat vaginitis, these products provide symptomatic relief, but seldom get to the cause of the problem.
When prescription treatment ends for vaginitis, the microbes involved often develop drug resistance. This can bring a resurgence of germ colonies with greater strength than before treatment started (Elmer 1996). But do not despair. A growing number of medical doctors have found an effective, natural way to help their female patients get faster relief from vaginitis. But first, let’s learn more about this irritating feminine condition.
Where Does the Itchy Problem Start?
Vaginitis (Vaginal Thrush) is an inflammation in the mucous membranes of the vagina. It occurs when alien germs, yeast, or fungus organisms take control of the vaginal environment. Often painful, vaginitis is characterized by a yellowish, thick discharge with itching, burning, and sometimes light bleeding.
Any number of situations can promote vaginitis: radiation therapy, hormonal changes, characteristic of pregnancy and menopause, vitamin B deficiency, excessive douching, or poor hygiene in the vaginal area. Even intestinal worms, oral contraceptives, or deodorant sprays can cause vaginitis. Atrophic vaginitis is found in postmenopausal women and develops due to hormonal drops of oestrogen in the vaginal canal.
Antibiotic usage is the “usual suspect” when vaginitis is the diagnosis in non-pregnant women under 45. When colonies of friendly bacteria are present in sufficient numbers within the vaginal lining, conditions are normal and balanced. However, when antibiotics deplete beneficial bacteria, yeast organisms have the opportunity to overgrow and produce inflammation because they are not killed off by antibiotics. Sugar consumption, either natural or refined, only feeds the fire of vaginal yeast infection. All too soon, yeast colonies will dominate in the vagina.
The Importance of Beneficial Bacteria
Today, we know that L. acidophilus bacteria are the normal, protective inhabitants of vaginal membranes. But it took the 1920’s research of Dr.R. Schroder to realize how important the right acid/alkaline balance or “pH” is for vaginal health along with optimal amounts of germ killing hydrogen peroxide. His studies showed that low levels of hydrogen producing bacteria in the vagina are associated with high levels of inflammation, itching, and discharge. Women not suffering with vaginitis had higher acidic levels in their vaginal secretions and large amounts of L. acidophilus friendly bacteria. These women had very few “bad” germs in the vaginal area (Trenev 1998).
Forty years later, a report in the American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology noted when L. acidophilus supplements were introduced into the vagina, pathogenic germs, such as staphylococcus, streptococcus, and diplococcus, were replaced by these beneficial or “pro-life” bacteria. The pH of the vaginal area shifted from an alkaline area of 5 or 6 to a more acidic level of 4. The symptoms of vaginitis were promptly relieved and did not reoccur as long as women continued to consume the beneficial bacteria supplements. More recent research published in the Journal of Infectious Diseases emphasizes that L.acidophilus organisms play an important role in producing anti-microbial substances to keep the vagina healthy (1991). Dr. S.J Klebanoff of the University of Washington School of medicine found that hydrogen peroxide producing L.acidophilus bacteria help defeat unwanted bad germs in the vagina. Also, women who have low levels of these friendly bacteria in their genital tracts appear more likely to contract sexually transmitted diseases. Researchers at the Wayne State University School of Medicine found similar results and emphasised that lactobacilli play an important role in controlling yeast overgrowth for the most vaginal comfort. (Redondo-Lopez 1990)
Once yeast overgrowth has been controlled with a bioadaptable form of hydrogen peroxide produced by L. acidophilus bacteria, vaginal inflammation will subside over time. However, never douche with over the counter forms of hydrogen peroxide because these concentrations can damage human cells in the body.
The Practical Way to Cope with Vaginitis
It is important to maintain optimal levels of beneficial bacteria in the vaginal canal to maintain health and comfort. Take 2 capsules each of L.acidophilus (DDS-1 or NAS super strains) and B bifidum (Malytoh super strain) along with 1 teaspoon of L. bulgaricus (LB-5 super strain) mixed in ½ to 1 glass of unchilled, filtered water in the morning before breakfast. Repeat this oral regime again before dinner and continue for 14 days.
Diet Changes and Vaginitis
To help rid yourself of vaginitis; it is also wise to support vaginal health through the digestive tract. Since yeast feeds on dietary sugar, slow down the spread of yeast and various fungal infections in the vagina by eliminating all refined and concentrated forms of sugar from the diet. Even fresh and dried fruit sugars should be avoided until the problem clears up. Nuts, seeds, cheese and some Indian and Chinese teas can also carry hidden mould and yeast spores. Avoid eating smoked meat, fish or smoked poultry and try not to buy meat products from animals raised on antibiotics. Check food labels for hidden sugars in salad dressings, canned soups and chips in cellophane bags.
By using powerful strains of L.acidophilus to produce a “user friendly” form of hydrogen peroxide, you are more likely to control vaginitis and maintain optimal vaginal comfort. So, let these friendly bacteria go to work for you.
Tips To Follow When Plagued With Vaginitis.
- Wear white cotton underwear.
- Avoid synthetic fibres and tight clothing.
- Stay away from aged cheeses, dried fruits, fermented foods, and high gluten grains.
- Do not use corticosteroids or oral contraceptives until the condition clears.
- Avoid iron supplements until the inflammation disappears.
- Eat extra fiber daily. Psyllium or oat bran are good choices.
- Cut out citrus and acidic fruits until the vaginitis has improved.
- Use condoms with a sexual partner to prevent reinfection.
Butler. B. (1960). “Bacterial flora in vaginitis.” American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 79: 432-440.
Elmer, G. (1996). “Biotherapeutic Agents: A Neglected Modality fro the Treatment and Prevention of Selected Intestinal and Vaginal Infections” Journal of the American Medical Association, 275(11): 873.
Kleabanoff, S. (1991). “Control of the Microbial Flora of the Vagina” The Journal of Infectious Diseases, 164(1): 94-100
Relondo-Lopez, V. (1990). “Emerging Role of Lactobacilli in the Control and Maintenance of the Vaginal Bacterial Microflora.” Reviews of Infectious Diseases, 12(5): 856- 72.
RITALIN is not the only answer to the treatment of ADHD
Parents whose children are affected by ADHD (attention deficit hyperactivity disorder) need to be aware of a safe, natural alternative to the controversial drug Ritalin. (Methylphenidate).
The drug was the subject of an enquiry on the TV3 programme 20/20. Ritalin is a form of amphetamine, commonly prescribed for children with this disorder. The programme reported cases of abuse as a “recreational drug” and the dangerous side effects of over dose.
The alternative is Efalex, which supplies a combination of essential fatty acids including evening primrose oil, tuna oil, vitamin E and thyme oil. Fatty acids ensure the normal transmission of messages along nerves and development of memory. Fatty acids give the cell membranes of the eye and brain access to nutrients each need for normal functioning.
Use of these products is supported by the New Zealand ADHD Association Inc., which acts for the parents and caregivers of children who experience these disorders.
The success of fatty acids in disorders including dyslexia, dyspraxia and hyperactivity is borne out by study results in the United Kingdom (reported in the leading medical journal the Lancet) and the United States (Purdue University and others). Currently a trial is ongoing at the Dept. of Paediatrics at Monash University, to validate the 80% + success rate that the product is reported to have.
Fatty Acids are taken in capsule or liquid form and because products such as Efalex contain only natural products, even a massive overdose would only produce a mild stomach upset.
Parents can be assured that the product is not a drug and not attractive to drug users – so they need not worry about a possible raid on their bathroom cabinet by potential abusers.
Using Efalex in conjunction with stimulant medications
Fatty acid supplementation can take some months to have an effect therefore we strongly advise to leave the child on stimulant medication when you start Efalex. Always remember this should be done in conjunction with your specialist, as the child will need to be closely monitored for changes in the effectiveness of the stimulant medication. There is usually a certain time during the day that the stimulant medication has worn off. At this time monitor the child - if they appear more in control, more focused and calmer, then we suggest you discuss with your Doctor reducing the level of stimulant medication.
Alternatively, about an hour after the stimulant medication is administered, the child will need to be monitored to see if the child is more restless or ‘uncontrolled’. This may mean that the child’s fatty acid balance to close to normal and that the stimulant medication has begun to act as a stimulant – this is the time to your specialist about adjusting the level of stimulant. We strongly urge you to seek your Doctor’s advice when combining Efalex with other medications.
Course of treatment with Efalex
From our research, it appears that children will need to take fatty acid supplementation through until the end of their growth phase (around 16 or 17 years old). However they will only need to take the initial start dose for the first three months and then the rest of the time they will be on the maintenance dose which is half the starting dose.
There may be times that you notice that Efalex doesn’t seem to be as effective as in the past, this usually coincides with one of the following:
- Growth Spurts
- Viral Infections
- Hormonal changes
The reason for this is that all these factors put increased requirements on the body for fatty acids. If this does happen it may be necessary top increase the dose of Efalex back to the initial start dose during these times.
Whilst Efalex is generally regarded as safe to take with medicines, anyone under medical supervision, or taking medication, should consult their doctor before taking a supplement. Efalex is not recommended for children under 3 years of age.